I watch dogs walk their owners and even drag them down the hallway at the clinic on a daily basis. So, I thought I would take the time and write a short article about the subject. There are many types of collars, and some actually are better than others.
Flat collars are the most popular and common collars you see on dogs. These collars are called this as they sit flt around the pet's neck. A flat collar is great for pets who already have good leash manners. They are also appropriate when a pet does not walk on a leash but needs identification, such as a nameplate or Rabies tag. These are not the best collars for training a dog to a leash.
Head collars (like a Gentle Leader) are by far the best type of collar for leash training or even controlling a large dog. These collars fit over the muzzle and clip behind the head. The leash is then clipped to a ring below the dog's mouth. These collars control the head and make training and controlling a dog much easier. The dog will have to become used to the collar (like any collar and leash) before just throwing it on and going for a walk. The best way to do this is by holding it over your hand and coaxing the pet to slip it's nose through by holding a treat on the other side. Another benefit of these collars is that they do not apply pressure to the dogs throat. For this very reason choker chains and "pinch" collars are not recommended. The trachea or "wind pipe" is actually a fairly delicate organ and too much pressure can cause damage. Choker chains also rarely help control the pet and now you have a pet who still pulls but can't breathe.
Harnesses are not technically a collar but are becoming more and more popular. I especially love the use of harnesses in smaller dogs. Many smaller dogs have even more delicate tracheae and the pressured applied by a human to a leash around the neck of a 5 pound dog can be crushing. Many types of harness exist but the best have padding, and do not cut into the armpits.
The best way to fit a flat collar is to lie your first two fingers flat against the dogs neck and secure it snugly. If you can not fit two fingers flat under the dog's collar it is too tight. If you have much more space than two fingers it is too lose and could slip off if the dog pulls. This is especially important when applying a flea and tick collar such as Seresto. These collars will not be effective if not properly fitted. To assure proper fit (and especially in growing dogs), the two finger test should be performed at least once per week.
Finally, leashes. Flat leashes of 6-8 ft are by far superior to longer leashes and especially to retractable leashes. Retractable leashes make controlling a pet very difficult. The small cords are prone to breakage and the catches often fail. Either of these can lead to fatal accidents. The key is to be able to keep your pet close at all times and retractable leashes fail to do this effectively. I once had a neighbor who walked her dogs with retractable leashes. It was always nerve-racking to watch her frantically attempt to reel her dogs in as they narrowly avoided being hit by a car.
If you have any questions, comments or need help finding and fitting the right collar and leash please contact us or come see us. We are more than happy to help you keep your four-legged friend safe and stylish.
During this time of year, we almost always have at least one hospitalized case of parvovirus. Parvovirus is a very serious disease of the intestines. For all intents and purposes, the virus strips the lining from the intestines and makes it impossible for the dog to absorb any nutrients. This leads to dehydration, and starvation. Without intensive treatment the prognosis is very poor.
Fortunately, the disease is usually very easy to prevent with vaccination. Currently parvovirus is the most important vaccine given to puppies. The vaccine should be given as early as 6 weeks old and then at regular intervals, until the puppy is 18-20 weeks old. At Satilla Animal Hospital we vaccinate every 2 weeks from 6 weeks until 18 or 20 weeks of age.
ONE VACCINE DOES NOT PROTECT YOUR PUPPY!
When a puppy is born it receives some protection from its mother. This protection only lasts for a certain amount of time, and this time is different for every puppy. The protection from a mother is essential for the puppy's survival early on. However, this same protection makes any vaccine given during this time unsuccessful. Keep in mind this time is different for all puppies. This is why the series is so important. If a puppy only receives one vaccine and it is given while maternal antibodies are high, that puppy could still get parvo, once those maternal antibodies decrease. The puppy needs to receive vaccines after it develops its own immunity. Since we can not guess exactly when the maternal protection will go away, and the puppy develops its own, we have to vaccinate regularly until we KNOW the puppy should have an adequate immune system (usually 18-20 weeks).
Anyone who has ever owned, cared for, or treated a parvo puppy, knows how sad the disease process can be. Even if the puppy is lucky enough to survive, the suffering is immense.
Please vaccinate your puppies and remember that "booster" shots are as important and sometimes more important than the initial vaccine. If you have any questions about parvovirus, maternal antibodies or vaccination please ask your veterinarian. As always you can contact us with any questions or concerns.
I remember going to the feed store around Easter as a child. Every year, I'd beg for one of the brightly dyed chicks and hoped my parents would finally let me take one home. They never did. I thought they were cruel and didn't want me to be happy. In hindsight it seems that they were much wiser than I realized.
Now as an adult, I would like to encourage you to be a cruel parent. The Center for Disease Control states that chicks can expose children to salmonella. This bacteria can be very harmful to children and each spring children are infected from handling baby chicks.
This year we have also had another run-in with the dreaded bird-flu. Many surrounding states have confirmed cases and Georgia has had confirmed cases of the less severe version. Bird flu is spread from flocks by wild birds that come and go. So, bringing new birds in could potentially invite more disease.
Another reason to avoid the purchase of a chick is simply humanity. Most of those cute little colorful birds die shortly after the holiday. Children often lose interest just about as quickly as the dye fades. Do you have time, or know how to raise a chick?
Finally, Peeps are delicious. Who doesn't like sugar-coated, air-fluffed sugar? Not to mention the seemingly sinister, yet innocent gratification one gets from biting off the marshmallow head or tail (no judgement). Peeps are only around for the season which adds to the nostalgia and makes them magically guilt-free. So go ahead and eat the entire package (no judgement). Just leave the live chicks at the feed store.
Canine and feline obesity is becoming as "large" a problem as the current epidemic with people. Studies have shown that more than 50% of our pets are overweight or obese. Most of us know that obesity can lead to an abundance of health issues and can also shorten our pet's life. In some cases, weight gain can be a sign of disease itself. So what can we do to end this and help our pets live healthier and happier lives?
The first step is acceptance:
I don't enjoy having to discuss obesity with owners. We love our pets and no one wants to be told that their child is fat. For this reason, many people take it very personally. The last thing we, as veterinarians, want to do is upset our clients. As a profession we pride ourselves on developing a good relationship with our clients. Some veterinarians will avoid the topic for this reason. So why would I tell you your dog is fat? Because I care. Because I want you to have as many years with your pet as possible and because I know the consequences of not taking action.
Next, we need to find out why we are overweight. Usually, the cause is as simple as too many calories in and not enough exercise. Sometimes however, the cause can be due to disease, such as Cushing's or hypothyroidism. For this reason I recommend starting with a complete exam with bloodwork, including thyroid testing.
Once we have determined the cause we can take action. In most cases your pet can get to a healthy weight just by paying attention to how much you feed, adding exercise and weighing them regularly. In many cases we grossly over-feed our pets. We think our pets will love us more if we give them tasty treats. In reality it is proven that pets respond much more favorably and bond better with owners who spend time with and praise them (like taking them for a walk).
Limit the number of treats your pet gets. Treats can be deceptively high in calories. These calories have to be accounted for when trying to restrict an overweight pet's intake. It does me no good to eat 3 balanced meals a day if I have a piece of cake after each meal. In cases where significant weight needs to be lost, I recommend removing treats altogether. If you still feel the need to reward your pet, green beans can be a good, low calorie alternative to commercially prepared treats.
Finally, if pets refuse to lose weight with reducing feeding amount alone, prescription diets for weight lose are available. While these diets can be costly, the added years and savings on treating disease is priceless. As mentioned before, excess weight can be linked to numerous diseases from diabetes to orthopedic disease.
Weight management is one of the most important aspects of animal health, yet we spend very little time addressing the issue. Sometimes it is uncomfortable to talk about and not well received but the pet's health and longevity depends on it. Because all dogs are different, weight alone may not always be the best indicator of obesity. For that reason I am attaching a Body Condition Score chart that can be referenced to help you along your pet's weight loss journey. Also feel free to stop in anytime and check your pet's progress on our scales. For more information on diets or for help with your pet's weight loss, visit us at Satilla Animal Hospital in Waycross, GA.
Three ways to keep your dog's mouth healthy and spend less money on dental cleanings.
We all know that we should brush our teeth at least twice a day and many of us have been scolded by our dentist when we forget to floss. It is also recommended that we have a professional cleaning performed at least once a year. Why then are we so surprised when the veterinarian lifts our pet's lips to reveal a foul-smelling mouth full of tartar-packed teeth and red, angry gums?
Dental disease causes more problems than most of us realize. When tartar builds up on the teeth it traps bacteria in the gums. This bacteria eventually finds its way into the blood where it has been linked to heart disease, kidney disease and other illness. In addition to the spread of bacteria through the blood, dental disease causes pain, bleeding and abscesses in the mouth.
Dental cleanings by a veterinarian are the only way to remove the damage that exists, but fortunately they can be limited and sometimes avoided completely with at-home dental care.
The following are industry guidelines for keeping your pets mouth healthy before and between dental cleanings:
The Veterinary Oral Health Council is for dental products what the NASC is for supplements. Basically, a team of veterinary dental professionals came together and decided too many products were being marketed toward dental health that didn't actually do anything for the teeth and gums. The VOHC is now a governing body that guarantees any product carrying their "seal of approval" meets its claims for tartar and plaque reduction. As with supplements not all products without the seal are necessarily garbage, but you should always ask your vet or look for the seal when in doubt. More information on VOHC can be found here. Also, this is a link to a list all of the VOHC approved products.
Since we are in South Georgia, I thought this would be a great blog topic. I would guess 70% (or more) of the cases we see are itchy pets. The clinical signs can be mild to severe and range from licking paws to scratching until hair falls out. These pets can be absolutely miserable and often make the owners miserable as well.
So why is my pet itchy? The one single reason most pets are itchy is something called Atopic Dermatitis. Simply put it means itchy skin and is usually due to environmental allergies. It is important to understand that environmental allergies are different than food allergies. Food allergies are much less often the culprit so I will discuss them briefly later on. Environmental allergens can be anything that the pet is exposed to, from pollen to fleas.
Flea allergies are one of the most common and severe presentations of itchy dogs and cats. Pets with flea allergies become itchy when they are bitten. Just like in people some animals are more allergic than others and as little as one bite can cause a reaction. Some pets have such a severe allergy that the owner and vet may not see fleas, but due to the presentation, flea allergy is still determined to be the cause. These pets can even be on a flea preventative and still have a break-out if bitten.
Other environmental allergens can be much more difficult to pinpoint because they can literally be anything in the pets environment. Some dogs may have an itchy belly and feet after being exposed to grass. Others may suffer from pollen. I have even seen cases where certain carpet cleaners and laundry detergents have caused reactions.
Food allergies, while much less common, do also exist. Food allergies are almost impossible to test for with a standard allergy test in an animal hospital. The most common way of diagnosing food allergies is by trial and error. The pet is usually treated for an environmental allergy and if traditional treatments fail, food allergies start to be suspected. Another sign may be loose stool or nausea, however, this is not always the case and not reliable alone to make a diagnosis.
So what can I do?
For environmental allergies or atopic dermatitis, there are several options for treating this disease. Since fleas are commonly associated with allergies and itchy pets in this region, flea prevention is the most important part of management. A monthly flea preventative is the most effective way to control fleas.
Next, these pets have a weakened skin barrier, which makes them more susceptible to allergies. Normal dogs have healthy skin which protects them form this disease. In allergic dogs the skin barrier is defective and allows the allergen to penetrate and cause itch.
This is why my first step in treating this disease is to start a prescription diet like Hill's Derm Defense. This food, and others like it, have been proven to improve the skin barrier and make it less susceptible to the allergens in the environment. Sometimes this diet alone can control allergies.
If diet alone is not enough, the actual itch can be addressed. There are a range of products from steroids to pills (Apoquel) and injections (Cytopoint) that can help control the itch.
Finally, in severe cases of chronic itch, the pet will often have a skin infection. This is a part of the itch cycle that i will describe in just a second. The pet essentially scratches so much that the skin is completely broken and bacteria creates an infection. These pets will need antibiotics as a part of their treatment.
Finally, managing food allergies. If the above treatments were unsuccessful, or food allergies have been diagnosed due to other history and clinical signs, your pet may need a food trial. This means your pet will have to eat a specific food for a period of time and can not be exposed to any other treats or food during this time. It is very important to realize that protein is almost always the source of a food allergy. Although it is a popular trend right now, grains are almost never the source of an allergy. If the pet remains free of clinical signs during the food trial, different proteins can be reintroduced to determine the source, or the pet remains on the special diet to avoid reactions.
The itch cycle and where each treatment fits
I briefly mentioned the itch cycle earlier. This will be a layman's explanation and a more scientific definition can be found here.
As mentioned earlier, most of these pets have a defective skin barrier (this is why the food, Derm Defense, helps). Allergens are able to enter the skin and cause the body to have a reaction. Remember these can be anything from fleas to pollen. Once the skin has been breached and the reaction occurs, cells see the allergen and release components that tell the pet, "you are itchy". Apoquel and Cytopoint help limit these symptoms. Once the pet receives that message, it begins to scratch. As the pet scratches the skin barrier becomes even weaker and more allergens can breach it. Now more signals are sent to tell the pet, "you are itchy". Now the pet scratches, licks or chews more. This leads to more broken skin, more allergen, more itch and eventually infection. This is why we often call atopic dermatitis a viscious cycle. This is also why once started, it can be so hard to gain control.
Every veterinarian may differ in their means of approaching these cases and every pet's needs will vary. As a simple rule, my goal for control in an itchy dog is to try to stop the itch at each step of the cycle. This means fix the weak skin barrier with food, control the itch with medication as needed, and finally treat any skin infections that may be present.
Supplements are great, and many times people use them for themselves as an alternative to pharmaceuticals or to otherwise improve their health. Many people also buy and administer supplements to their pets. How often do you wonder is this safe, effective, neither or both?
Published studies have proven the efficacy and safety of many supplements on the market. However, the same studies have shown that some products can contain anywhere form 0% to 110% of the active ingredient listed on the label. What may be more surprising is that some of the most expensive products were among those with 0% of the labeled ingredients.
With this in mind, how can we be sure we aren't flushing money down the drain? Well for human supplements there are four laboratories that perform analysis on supplements. If you buy supplements without such a seal you may be wasting money. As for pets, there is also one company that performs these same tests and grants a "seal of approval."
This company is called the National Animal Supplement Company. Every product that contains this seal meets the label claims. They even have a list of approved supplements on their website. The NASC requires four key criteria to be met to grant their seal. These criteria are:
So what should you take away from reading this post?
In the spirit of giving, we are listing our favorite dog and cat toys. These will make wonderful gifts or stocking stuffers this holiday season.
As a food-loving, red-blooded American, Thanksgiving means turkey and dressing, potatoes and gravy, cranberries and sweet potato soufflé. It means time with family and seeing loved ones you may not have seen for months or sometimes years. Perhaps most importantly, it means not having to wait for the weekend to watch football (even if you already know the Lions and Redskins are going to lose).
As a veterinarian, Thanksgiving brings completely different sentiments. Thanksgiving is one of the busiest times for veterinarians. Every year we see several emergency cases. Emergency visits are no fun for anyone and some can be avoided by simply following one rule:
Do not share any Thanksgiving treats with your furry loved ones.
As pet owners, we express our love for pets through food. This is true of pet owners of all species from dogs to horses and cats to cows. We are reinforced by the way they jump up and seem so excited when we give them even the smallest morsel. However, recent studies have shown that even the most food motivated pets prefer praise (a pat on the head, a good boy or even a belly rub) to food. This information could potentially help us avoid some unnecessary hospital visits this holiday season.
Here are a few tips to keep in mind over the holiday season:
It may sound like I am encouraging you to not let your pet partake in any of the reindeer games this holiday season. In a word, Yes, I am. So, what do you give Fido when he begs for those green beans soaked in bacon grease? Well, if you want him to spend Christmas at home (and not in the hospital), I suggest a pat on the head and a "good boy." You both will appreciate that much more than you know.
All of us at Satilla Animal Hospital wish you a safe and happy holiday season.
Comfortis is the flea pill that revolutionized flea prevention in cats and dogs. Comfortis begins working quickly to kill fleas. Since it has been available it has been wildly popular, along with its combination formula (Trifexis). Comfortis is a once monthly pill for dogs and cats that begins working quickly and lasts for an entire month.